Using Biofeedback Training to Focus The ADHD Mind


medical devices



ADHD has struck the academic careers of millions of young teens as those with the disorder present lower grades and more behavioral misconduct. This paper will review existing technology assist devices for ADHD diagnosed students and develop an alternative device to work in this space. The device is a biofeedback training system that encourages fidgeting as a means to enhance academic focus.  Initial subject testing was completed and the results are presented. The device is shown to be an effective tool to induce fidgeting, but connections between fidgeting and academic performance are not established.



Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2019, June 22). Retrieved from

Besterfield-Sacre, M., Moreno, M., Shuman, L. J., & Atman, C. J. (2001). Gender and Ethnicity

Differences in Freshmen Engineering Student Attitudes: A Cross-Institutional Study*. Journal of Engineering Education, 90(4), 477–489. doi: 10.1002/j.2168-9830.2001.tb00629.x

Cloud, J. (2009, April 13). PDF.

Combined Cognitive Remediation and Behavioral Intervention for Treatment of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) - Tabular View. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Cortese, S. (2011, June 4). The Relationship Between Attention-deficit–Hyperactivity Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome. Retrieved from

Daley, D., & Birchwood, J. (2010). ADHD and academic performance: why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom? Child: Care, Health, and Development, 36(4) , 455-464. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2009.01046.x

Donk, van der, Anne-Claire, Tjeenk-Kalff, Leij, van der, Lindauer, & Ramón. (2015, July 13). Cognitive training for children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of cogmed working memory training and 'paying attention in class'. Retrieved from

Farley, J., Risko, E. F., & Kingstone, A. (2013, September 18). Everyday attention and lecture retention: the effects of time, fidgeting, and mind wandering. Retrieved from

Kimberly Holland and Elsbeth Riley | Illustrations by Tony Bueno. (2018, July 23). ADHD by the Numbers: Facts, Statistics, and You. Retrieved from

Monastra, V. J., Lynn, S., Linden, M., Lubar, J. F., Gruzelier, J., & Lavaque, T. J. (2005). Electroencephalographic Biofeedback in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 30(2), 95–114. doi: 10.1007/s10484-005-4305-x

Shedding Light on Leg Stereotypy Syndrome. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Sonne, T., Marshall, P., Obel, C., Thomsen, P. H., & Grønbæk, K. (2016). An assistive technology design framework for ADHD. Proceedings of the 28th Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction - OzCHI 16. doi: 10.1145/3010915.3010925

Targeted Neurofeedback Protocols. (2019, January 16). Retrieved from

Watson, S. (2018, December 7). Leg Shaking: RLS and 12 Other Causes, Tremor Types, and More. Retrieved from

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 Lia Ramos